Lawrence Britt “Fourteen Elements of Fascism”

by Lawrence Britt

For the purpose of this perspective, I will consider the following regimes: Nazi Germany, Fascist

Italy, Franco’s Spain, Salazar’s Portugal, Papadopoulos’s Greece, Pinochet’s Chile, and Suharto’s

Indonesia. To be sure, they constitute a mixed bag of national identities, cultures, developmental

levels, and history. But they all followed the fascist or protofascist model in obtaining,

expanding, and maintaining power. Further, all these regimes have been overthrown, so a more or

less complete picture of their basic characteristics and abuses is possible.
Analysis of these seven regimes reveals fourteen common threads that link them in recognizable

patterns of national behavior and abuse of power. These basic characteristics are more prevalent

and intense in some regimes than in others, but they all share at least some level of similarity.
1. Powerful and continuing expressions of nationalism. From the prominent displays of flags and

bunting to the ubiquitous lapel pins, the fervor to show patriotic nationalism, both on the part

of the regime itself and of citizens caught up in its frenzy, was always obvious. Catchy slogans,

pride in the military, and demands for unity were common themes in expressing this nationalism. It

was usually coupled with a suspicion of things foreign that often bordered on xenophobia.
2. Disdain for the importance of human rights. The regimes themselves viewed human rights as of

little value and a hindrance to realizing the objectives of the ruling elite. Through clever use

of propaganda, the population was brought to accept these human rights abuses by marginalizing,

even demonizing, those being targeted. When abuse was egregious, the tactic was to use secrecy,

denial, and disinformation.
3. Identification of enemies/scapegoats as a unifying cause. The most significant common thread

among these regimes was the use of scapegoating as a means to divert the people’s attention from

other problems, to shift blame for failures, and to channel frustration in controlled directions.

The methods of choice–relentless propaganda and disinformation–were usually effective. Often the

regimes would incite “spontaneous” acts against the target scapegoats, usually communists,

socialists, liberals, Jews, ethnic and racial minorities, traditional national enemies, members of

other religions, secularists, homosexuals, and “terrorists.” Active opponents of these regimes

were inevitably labeled as terrorists and dealt with accordingly.
4. The supremacy of the military/avid militarism. Ruling elites always identified closely with the

military and the industrial infrastructure that supported it. A disproportionate share of national

resources was allocated to the military, even when domestic needs were acute. The military was

seen as an expression of nationalism, and was used whenever possible to assert national goals,

intimidate other nations, and increase the power and prestige of the ruling elite.

5. Rampant sexism. Beyond the simple fact that the political elite and the national culture were

male-dominated, these regimes inevitably viewed women as second-class citizens. They were

adamantly anti-abortion and also homophobic. These attitudes were usually codified in Draconian

laws that enjoyed strong support by the orthodox religion of the country, thus lending the regime

cover for its abuses.
6. A controlled mass media. Under some of the regimes, the mass media were under strict direct

control and could be relied upon never to stray from the party line. Other regimes exercised more

subtle power to ensure media orthodoxy. Methods included the control of licensing and access to

resources, economic pressure, appeals to patriotism, and implied threats. The leaders of the mass

media were often politically compatible with the power elite. The result was usually success in

keeping the general public unaware of the regimes’ excesses.
7. Obsession with national security. Inevitably, a national security apparatus was under direct

control of the ruling elite. It was usually an instrument of oppression, operating in secret and

beyond any constraints. Its actions were justified under the rubric of protecting “national

security,” and questioning its activities was portrayed as unpatriotic or even treasonous.
8. Religion and ruling elite tied together. Unlike communist regimes, the fascist and protofascist

regimes were never proclaimed as godless by their opponents. In fact, most of the regimes attached

themselves to the predominant religion of the country and chose to portray themselves as militant

defenders of that religion. The fact that the ruling elite’s behavior was incompatible with the

precepts of the religion was generally swept under the rug. Propaganda kept up the illusion that

the ruling elites were defenders of the faith and opponents of the “godless.” A perception was

manufactured that opposing the power elite was tantamount to an attack on religion.
9. Power of corporations protected. Although the personal life of ordinary citizens was under

strict control, the ability of large corporations to operate in relative freedom was not

compromised. The ruling elite saw the corporate structure as a way to not only ensure military

production (in developed states), but also as an additional means of social control. Members of

the economic elite were often pampered by the political elite to ensure a continued mutuality of

interests, especially in the repression of “have-not” citizens.
10. Power of labor suppressed or eliminated. Since organized labor was seen as the one power

center that could challenge the political hegemony of the ruling elite and its corporate allies,

it was inevitably crushed or made powerless. The poor formed an underclass, viewed with suspicion

or outright contempt. Under some regimes, being poor was considered akin to a vice.
11. Disdain and suppression of intellectuals and the arts. Intellectuals and the inherent freedom

of ideas and expression associated with them were anathema to these regimes. Intellectual and

academic freedom were considered subversive to national security and the patriotic ideal.

Universities were tightly controlled; politically unreliable faculty harassed or eliminated.

Unorthodox ideas or expressions of dissent were strongly attacked, silenced, or crushed. To these

regimes, art and literature should serve the national interest or they had no right to exist.
12. Obsession with crime and punishment. Most of these regimes maintained Draconian systems of

criminal justice with huge prison populations. The police were often glorified and had almost

unchecked power, leading to rampant abuse. “Normal” and political crime were often merged into

trumped-up criminal charges and sometimes used against political opponents of the regime. Fear,

and hatred, of criminals or “traitors” was often promoted among the population as an excuse for

more police power.
13. Rampant cronyism and corruption. Those in business circles and close to the power elite often

used their position to enrich themselves. This corruption worked both ways; the power elite would

receive financial gifts and property from the economic elite, who in turn would gain the benefit

of government favoritism. Members of the power elite were in a position to obtain vast wealth from

other sources as well: for example, by stealing national resources. With the national security

apparatus under control and the media muzzled, this corruption was largely unconstrained and not

well understood by the general population.
14. Fraudulent elections. Elections in the form of plebiscites or public opinion polls were

usually bogus. When actual elections with candidates were held, they would usually be perverted by

the power elite to get the desired result. Common methods included maintaining control of the

election machinery, intimidating and disenfranchising opposition voters, destroying or disallowing

legal votes, and, as a last resort, turning to a judiciary beholden to the power elite.


One Response to “Lawrence Britt “Fourteen Elements of Fascism””

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